Förderung der CCS-Technologie: Ein Wegweiser für ein klimaneutrales Europa

February 20, 2024

ts for funding under the first two rounds of large scale calls. However, the Fund currently relies on a competitive bidding process that awards a fixed amount of capital funding to selected projects, rather than the ongoing operational support that is provided by CCfDs. Given the high level of uncertainty in future carbon prices, such an approach may not provide the long-term security needed for investment decisions on large-scale CCS projects. Moreover, the Fund is financed by the sale of ETS allowances, making available funds vulnerable to carbon market volatility.To stimulate investment in CCUS projects that are not yet commercially viable, the EU should consider the following measures:Adopting and promoting Carbon Contract for Difference mechanisms or similar at both the EU and Member State levels, providing a predictable revenue stream to projects and derisking project finance.Ensuring that the Innovation Fund and other EU funding mechanisms provide adequate and predictable long-term support for CCUS projects, potentially through the allocation of a dedicated fund for CCS and CCU deployment.Encouraging Member States to provide additional national funding and support mechanisms for CCS and CCU projects where needed, including direct capital grants, low-interest loans, and risk-sharing arrangements such as guarantees.Exploring the implementation of sector-specific carbon taxes or emissions performance standards that can provide a stronger investment signal for CCS and CCU, particularly where there is a high risk of carbon leakage.Developing a clear framework for the inclusion of CCS and CCU in the ETS, including the treatment of cross-border CO2 transfers and the allocation of ETS allowances to storage operators.3.4 Facilitating the coordinated development of CO2 transport and storage infrastructureThe development of shared CO2 transport and storage infrastructure will be essential to enable the deployment of CCS at scale in Europe. Given the need for economies of scale and the cross-border nature of much of this infrastructure, a coordinated approach at the EU level is required.The EU should take the following actions to facilitate the development of CO2 infrastructure:Developing a detailed atlas of CO2 storage resources in the EU and European Economic Area (EEA), including the capacity, readiness, and development potential of different storage sites.Providing funding for the pre-commercial appraisal of strategic storage sites, helping to de-risk storage development and provide greater certainty on available storage capacity.Encouraging the development of CO2 transport infrastructure through the inclusion of CO2 transport projects in the Trans-European Networks for Energy (TEN-E) framework and eligibility for funding under the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF).Ensuring a coordinated approach to infrastructure planning through the development of an EU/EEA CO2 Network Plan, outlining a clear vision for CO2 transport and storage infrastructure development up to 2050.Establishing a regulatory framework for CO2 transport and storage infrastructure that ensures non-discriminatory access, promotes the efficient use of infrastructure, and encourages investment.Encouraging Member States to develop national CO2 infrastructure plans, aligned with the EU/EEA CO2 Network Plan and integrated into their National Energy and Climate Plans (NECPs).3.5 Aligning CCUS with integrated energy strategiesCCUS should be integrated into broader strategies for the energy transition, including the European Industrial Strategy and the European Green Deal. This will help ensure that CCUS is developed in a way that complements other decarbonisation measures and contributes to the overall goal of achieving climate neutrality.The EU should ensure that CCUS is aligned with integrated energy strategies by:Ensuring that CCUS is included in the European Industrial Strategy, recognising the role of CCUS in decarbonising energy-intensive industries and enabling the production of low-carbon products.Integrating CCUS into the European Green Deal, including the development of a comprehensive and coherent policy framework for CCUS deployment.Ensuring coordination between CCUS policies and other key elements of the energy transition, such as renewable energy deployment, energy efficiency measures, and the development of low-carbon fuels and technologies.Promoting the integration of CCUS into regional and local energy and climate strategies, ensuring that CCUS is developed in a way that is compatible with regional and local decarbonisation goals.3.6 Ensuring equitable access to CCUS solutionsThe development of CCUS should be equitable, ensuring that all regions and industries within the EU have access to CCUS solutions where needed. This will require a focus on developing CO2 infrastructure in a way that provides open-access and promotes fair competition.The EU should take the following actions to ensure equitable access to CCUS solutions:Ensuring that CO2 transport and storage infrastructure is developed as open-access facilities, allowing multiple users to access the infrastructure and promoting competition.Promoting the development of CO2 infrastructure in all regions where it is needed, including less-developed regions and those with a high concentration of energy-intensive industries.Encouraging collaboration between Member States on the development of cross-border CO2 infrastructure, ensuring that CO2 can be transported and stored efficiently across the EU.Ensuring that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have access to CCUS solutions, including through the development of smaller-scale capture technologies and access to shared infrastructure.3.7 Providing long-term regulatory drivers for CCUS deploymentTo ensure the long-term deployment of CCUS, the EU will need to provide regulatory drivers that create a market for CO2 storage and incentivise the use of CCUS technologies. This will require a focus on creating demand for low-carbon products and establishing a compliance market for CO2 removals.The EU should consider the following regulatory drivers for CCUS deployment:Creating demand for low-carbon products from heavy industry through public procurement policies, carbon intensity requirements for end-use sectors, and support for the development of markets for low-carbon products.Establishing a compliance market for permanent and measurable CO2 removals, including technology-based removals such as DACS and BECCS, ensuring that removals are used to balance residual emissions at net zero.Conducting an assessment of other possible long-term regulatory incentives for CCUS deployment, including supply-side measures such as geological carbon accounting and carbon takeback obligations.Ensuring that the regulatory framework for CCUS is consistent with the EU's long-term climate goals, including the objective of achieving climate neutrality by 2050.ConclusionThe EU is at a critical juncture in the development of CCUS, with the next decade being crucial for scaling up the technology and ensuring that it can contribute to the EU's climate goals. A comprehensive EU strategy for CCUS is urgently needed to provide clear targets, facilitate coordinated infrastructure development, create economic drivers for deployment, and ensure alignment with broader energy strategies.The actions outlined in this vision paper provide a roadmap for the EU to lead the development of CCUS and ensure that the technology can play its full role in decarbonising Europe and achieving climate neutrality. It is now up to the EU, its Member States, and other stakeholders to take the necessary steps to make this vision a reality.